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Equivalent Production With Examples Cost Accountancy

For example, a manufacturer may produce 10,000 units of a product, but only 8,000 units are fully completed. The EUP for the 2,000 partially completed units can be calculated to determine the cost per production unit. It requires tracking the units at each production stage and applying conversion factors to determine the equivalent number of completed units.

  • An average cost per unit is determined by dividing the total cost by the total equivalent units, to ascertain the value of the units completed and units in process.
  • This article will define the equivalent unit of production, explain how to calculate it, discuss its importance in accounting, explore its advantages and disadvantages, and provide best practices for accurate calculation.
  • However, if there are variations in the output quality, this can lead to inaccuracies in calculating equivalent production units.
  • By using EUP, manufacturers can more accurately track the costs of production, which can help them make more informed decisions about pricing and profitability.

We want to make sure that we have assigned all the costs from beginning work in process and costs incurred or added this period to units completed and transferred and ending work in process inventory. The second method of calculating equivalent units of production uses a FIFO method or First-in First-out. Businesses will first sell the finished inventory that they first receive, followed by any inventory they receive later, hence first in, first out.

Equivalent Units

For example, EUP does not consider the cost of rework or defects, which can significantly impact the overall cost of production. EUP helps businesses accurately measure their production output, which is essential for accurate financial reporting. Accurate financial reporting is necessary for making informed decisions about business operations, attracting investors, and complying with regulatory requirements. First, the equivalent production of opening work-in-progress should be determined by taking into account the degree of work to be performed in the current period. Mathematically, this is done by converting the partially completed units into fully completed units and then adjusting the output figure.

  • EUP provides a more accurate picture of production output and cost analysis, as it considers partially completed units and provides a way to compare the cost of production to the number of units completed.
  • Under this method opening work-in-progress is stated in equivalent completed units by applying the percentage of work needed to complete the unfinished work of the previous period.
  • In that case, the manufacturer may need to investigate whether there are differences in the resources or processes used by each team.
  • The concept of equivalent production units is widely used in various industries, such as manufacturing, mining, agriculture, etc.

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What is the meaning of equivalent unit?

Then number of units started and completed (i.e. units started less closing stock) are added. Further equivalent completed units of closing work-in-progress are also added to get the equivalent production. Just to spread the total costs equitably over part finished and fully complete units the concept of equivalent units is required. The number of equivalent units is the number of equivalent fully complete units which the partly completed units represent. Through the examples and tables provided, we hope to have shed light on these concepts, allowing you to confidently navigate process costing. Understanding equivalent units and equivalent production ensures accurate financial reporting and decision-making in process industries.

Importance of Equivalent Unit of Production in Accounting

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Step Two: Computing the Stage 2 Equivalent Units of Production

units in ending work in process, we would take the units unfinished
x a percent complete. The percent complete can be different for
direct materials, direct labor or overhead. For the shaping department, the materials are 100% complete with regard to materials costs and 35% complete with regard to conversion costs. The 7,500 units completed and transferred out to the finishing department must be 100% complete with regard to materials and conversion, so they make up 7,500 (7,500 × 100%) units. The 1,200 ending work in process units are 100% complete with regard to material and have 1,200 (1,200 × 100%) equivalent units for material.

Better inventory management

Regular analysis and review of the calculation of equivalent production units can help identify errors and inconsistencies and enable companies to make necessary adjustments. It can help ensure the calculation is accurate and can be used for effective decision-making. EUP is calculated over a specific period, usually a month or a quarter, while actual units produced refer to the total number of finished goods produced up to a specific point. Production may be seasonal in agriculture, with high and low production periods. This can make it challenging to compare equivalent production units across different periods or make accurate forecasts for future production.

Step Four: Allocating the Costs to the Units in the Finishing Department

The process cost system must calculate the equivalent units of production for units completed (with respect to materials and conversion) and for ending work in process with respect to materials and conversion. For example, calculating equivalent production units may involve different costs, such as direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead in the manufacturing industry. In this case, the equivalent production units for each cost type may be calculated separately and then added together to obtain the total equivalent units for the period. The beginning step in computing
Department B’s equivalent units for Jax Company is determining the
stage of completion of the 2,000 unfinished units (remember
units completed and transferred are always 100% complete).

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